Evidence: Refreshing Recollection v. Past Recollection Recorded

Present Recollection Refreshed
  • Any writing may be used to refresh a witness's memory. Things other than a writing may be used, such a beer, or a photograph
  • The witness cannot read from the writing while testifying.
  • There is no hearsay problem because the writing is not offered into evidence
Past Recollection Recorded
  • Only a writing that meets the (ATM PF) foundational requirements may be used
  • There writing itself is read aloud (into evidence)
  • This is hearsay, but it falls within a specific exception to the hearsay rule