- Right to Vote – 1 person, 1 vote for federal, state, and local elections.
- EXECEPTIONS: for special limited purpose districts, voting can be limited only to landowners and votes can be apportioned according to percentage of land owned (water board).
- Property interest restricts are generally unconstitutional.
- Reapportionment: geographical boundaries may not be defined so as to deny medical equality.
- Gerrymandering: unconstitutional; deliberately distorting political district for partisan purposes.
- Ballot access: Restriction on becoming an independent candidate upheld after strict scrutiny applied.
blanked primary law allowing voters to cast ballots across party lines – violates parties right to choose own leaders; struck down under strict scrutiny. California
- Right to be a candidate: Not fundamental (RBR applies).
- Age, payment of reasonable filing fee, reasonable residency requirements all come under rational basis.
- On ESSAY:
- The right to vote is a 15th Amendment issue.
- Representation, apportionment, discrimination in voting come under the 14th Amendment equal protection analysis.
- Durational Residency Requirements: Substantive Due Process 14th