Constitutional Law: Federal Judicial Power: Judicial Review: Abstention

    • Abstention: A federal court will temporarily abstain where there is an “unsettled issue of state law.”
      • Pullman Doctrine: Since state court interpretation of its statute might preclude the need for federal court review, the state resolution of the issue might render federal judicial adjudication unnecessary.
        • Federal court retains jurisdiction over the federal claim.
      • Younger Doctrine: Federal Court review prohibited for:
        • (1) Pending state criminal proceeding
        • (2) Criminally related civil proceeding
        • (3) Civil Contempt.
      • Abstention doctrine applies to the whole federal judiciary and deals with pending proceedings.
      • Adequate and independent state grounds applies only to SCOTUS and after final judgment.